Agnieszka Kozioł-Kozakowska, Urszula Darczuk

Epidemiological studies confirm existing of ”critical periods” in the life when metabolic programming under the influence of environmental factors occurring. Deficiency or excess of some nutrients can permanently change the child’s metabolism and increase the risk of developing certain diseases. David Barker was the first to describe the phenomenon of fetal metabolism programming, paying attention to the relationship between low birth weight and the occurrence of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in adulthood. The programming of the child’s metabolism in the aspect of disease prevention is also influenced by breastfeeding and proper nutrition in the first three years of the child’s life.

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